Accepted for Publication: November 17, 2015.
Published Online: February 24, 2016. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2015.0252.
Study concept and design: All authors.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: All authors.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Engel.
Obtained funding: Schwartz.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Engel, Homma.
Study supervision: Schwartz, Homma.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by the National Basketball Association (NBA) as part of a medical services agreement between the NBA and Columbia University.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The NBA approved the design and conduct of the study and helped with the collection of data but did not participate in the management, analysis, interpretation, or preparation of the data. The NBA reviewed and approved the manuscript and approved the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: The NBA provided organizational support for this study. The cooperation and collaboration of the NBA team physicians and the leadership of the NBA Team Physicians Association, the NBA players, and the National Basketball Players Association made this study possible. The cardiac group at Northwestern University School of Medicine performed echocardiograms at the NBA Combines. Zhezhen Jin, PhD, Columbia University Medical Center, assisted with statistical analysis, and Suzanne Conwell, BA, Columbia University Medical Center, made numerous important contributions to this study. Neither received compensation for their contributions.